Objectivos do Estudo

Trata-se de um trabalho de investigação científica que pretende caracterizar a situação em Portugal em termos dos diversos comportamentos e condutas desviantes por parte de estudantes do ensino superior.
Procura-se complementar trabalhos anteriormente realizados cuja população-alvo foram os estudantes do ensino superior de economia e gestão, considerando-se agora uma perspectiva mais lata, multi-curso e multi-institucional.
Com este estudo e com o diagnóstico que daí resultará teremos um instrumento importante para propor medidas realistas de combate à fraude académica e de sensibilização e promoção de um contexto de integridade académica entre os nossos estudantes, permitindo assim que cada instituição de ensino possa cumprir com mais eficácia e eficiência a respectiva missão.



No sentido de se obter informação primária sobre o fenómeno, foi elaborado um inquérito online.


Destinatários do inquérito


Todos os estudantes, dos vários graus de ensino (Licenciatura, Mestrado Integrado, Mestrado, Pós-graduações não conferentes de grau e Doutoramento) e cursos, das instituições de ensino superior de Portugal.



Divulgação dos resultados

Relatório-síntese com os resultados globais (Setembro 2011).

Documentos relevantes associados ao Estudo

Aurora A.C. Teixeira; Maria Fátima Rocha "Academic misconduct in Portugal: results from a large scale survey to university economics/business students", Journal of Academic Ethics, Springer, 8(1): 21-41.


The phenomenon of cheating in higher education is of overwhelming importance in that the students engaging in these acts are unlikely to have the skills necessary for their future professional life. Despite its relevance, the empirical evaluation of cheating in universities has been almost exclusively focused on the US context. Little is known about cheating at the European level, let alone in Portugal. Even less is explored at the regional level. In this paper we present evidence on the perception of cheating by Portuguese undergraduate students of economics/business degrees. We undertake a large-scale survey, involving 2675 students from all Portuguese mainland public universities (10). We found that copying-favourable environments are associated with a higher propensity to cheat. Moreover, in universities where 'codes of honour' exist, this propensity tends to be lower. Finally, the propensity to copy seems to be highly influenced by the cultural systems and socially-related factors of different regions.


Aurora A.C. Teixeira; Maria Fátima Rocha (2010), "Cheating by economics and business undergraduate students. An exploratory international assessment", Higher Education, Springer; 59 (6): 663-701.



Today’s economics and business students are expected to be our future business people and potentially the economic leaders and politicians of tomorrow. Thus, their beliefs and practices are liable to affect the definition of acceptable economics and business ethics. The empirical evaluation of the phenomenon of cheating in academia has almost exclusively focused on the US context, and non-US studies usually only cover a narrow range of countries. This paper presents a comprehensive, cross-country study on the magnitude and determinants of cheating among economics and business undergraduates, involving 7,213 students enrolled in 42 universities located in 21 countries from the American (4), European (14), Africa (2) and Oceania (1) Continents. We found that the average magnitude of copying among economics and business undergraduates is quite high (62%) but there was significant cross-country heterogeneity. The probability of cheating is significantly lower in students enrolled in schools located in the Scandinavian, and the US and British Isles blocks when compared with their Southern European counterparts; quite surprisingly this probability is also lower for the African block. On a distinctly different level, however, students enrolled in schools in Western and especially Eastern European countries reveal statistically significant higher propensities towards committing academic fraud.


Aurora A.C. Teixeira; Maria de Fátima Rocha (2008); "Academic cheating in Portugal and Spain: an empirical explanation", International Journal of Iberian Studies, Intellect, Vol. 21, Nº 1, pp. 3-22.



Despite its obvious interest and potential for concern, empirical research on the cheating phenomenon among university students has almost exclusively been carried out in the United States, usually covering only a few universities in a given region. Little is known about cheating in European universities, let alone the Iberian Peninsula. In this article we aim to contribute towards filling this gap by presenting evidence of this illicit behaviour in Portugal and Spain. Based on a survey of undergraduate students on Economics and Management courses, we conclude that there is a pervasive ‘culture’ of cheating in these two countries, reaching relatively high levels in universities. Using econometric techniques, which control for a wide set of variables likely to influence a student's propensity to cheat, we found that Spanish students are relatively more prone to breaching the academic code of conduct than their Portuguese counterparts, and that the implementation of Honour Codes by universities constitute a promising approach in curbing cheating in academia.


Aurora A.C. Teixeira; Maria de Fátima Rocha (2006); "College cheating in Austria, Portugal, Romania and Spain: a comparative analysis" Research in Comparative and International Education, Symposium Journals, Vol. 1, Nº 3, pp. 198-209.



The empirical evaluation of academic cheating has been almost exclusively focused on the US context. Little is known about cheating in European universities. This article aims to contribute further evidence on this highly relevant phenomenon afflicting higher education throughout Europe. Based on a large sample of undergraduate students of Economics and Management in Austria, Portugal, Romania and Spain, the authors estimated an econometric model and controlled for a variety of factors most likely to influence the probability of cheating (e.g. student characteristics, location, grades). It was found that (1) the likelihood of copying increases when the expected benefit from copying is positive; (2) in copying-favourable environments, the students' propensity to copy tends to be higher; (3) the greater and more serious the perceived sanctions, the fewer the incentives students have to perpetrate dishonest behaviours; (4) in schools where 'codes of honour' exist, the propensity to copy among students is lower; and (5) the propensity to copy seems to be influenced by the countries' education systems and social factors - for instance, Portuguese students are less prone to fraudulent behaviour, whereas Spanish students are more likely to cheat than their Austrian counterparts; no significant difference was found between Austrian and Romanian students.